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First Industrial National Innovation Survey (FINIS) Launched in Pakistan (Read More.......)

Pakistan Council for Science and Technology (PCST); an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Science and Technology mandated to advice the government on science, technology and innovation policy issues, has launched the First Industrial National Innovation Survey (FINIS) in the country.

Chairman's Profile

Prof. Dr. Anwar-ul-Hassan Gilani
Chairman, Pakistan Council for Science & Technology
Government of Pakistan
Shahrah-e-Jamhuriat, G-5/2, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Home University Affiliation: HEC Distinguished National Professor of Pharmacology
Dept. Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Aga Khan University
email: ahgilani5@gmail.com;

Profile Brief:

Prof. Anwar Gilani’s career is that of a distinguished Pharmacologist, combining novel discoveries and distinctive mentorship roles, who won merit scholarship from primary school to PhD. He obtained his BSc Agri (Hon)-Nutrition (1975) and MSc in Pharmacology (1978) with distinction from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad and started his professional career in 1979 as a lecturer of Pharmacy at Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. After completing his PhD (Pharmacology) from the University of Sydney, Australia in 1985, Dr. Gilani returned home and joined the Aga Khan University as lecturer and rose to full Professor in 1997, through accelerated promotions, where he occupied multiple leadership positions which include, Vice Chair, Research and Graduate Studies, Director, PhD Program in Health Sciences and Chair, Board of Graduate Studies, in addition to overseas positions (Tandem Dean, College of Health Sciences at the Mekelle University, Ethiopia) before occupying his current position, Chairman, Pakistan Council for Science and Technology in Jan 2015. Prof. Gilani also occupies the positions of Adjunct Professor at the International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, and holds the title of HEC Distinguished National Professor, in addition to Visiting Professor at a couple of overseas Universities.

Based on broad based training and diversity of exposure (Agriculture/Nutrition/Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences), Prof. Gilani developed his expertise in the emerging field, functional foods (medicinal value of foods), and made breakthrough discoveries, with international recognition of his expertise. In his current position (Chairman, PCST), in addition to primary role to advise the Government on all policy matters on Science, Technology and Innovation, and maintaining data and awarding Productive Scientists of Pakistan, Prof. Gilani continues playing effective role in promoting the area of functional foods and started organizing a series of national level workshops on “Organic Food and Health- Avenues of Innovation and Entrepreneurship”, which attracted huge interest of public and different stakeholders (details at PCST website; www.pcst.org.pk).

Prof. Gilani earned 3 Patents, is a co-editor of two WHO Books on Essential Medicine and published around 460 articles with cumulative IF around 700 and his research attracted high citations (~ 13,000) with an h-index of 61 based on Google scholar citation report. He supervised research of over 20 PhDs graduates, who occupied senior positions and majority of them, are playing leadership role (Head/Director/Dean) at national level and engaged in supervising graduate students research, while his 1st PhD trainee, who also happened to be his successor at BZ University, Multan rose to the level of Dean of Pharmacy Interim Vice Chancellor there.

Prof. Gilani occupied 1st National ranking in Pharmaceutical Sciences with the highest total of International Citations/Impact Factor. He is a Member, Editorial Boards of 10 journals of international repute and also invited/plenary speaker at 80 international symposia including International Union of Pharmacology Meetings.

Prof. Gilani is advisor to the WHO on Essential medicine and scientific advisor to International Foundation for Science. He won several national/international awards including two civil awards by the President of Pakistan (Pride of Performance and Sitara-i-Imtiaz), Boehringer International Research Award (Germany), Salam prize in Biology by TWAS, Italy, Ibn-Al-Haytham Prize in Science and Aga Hassan Abdi Gold Medals by Pakistan Academy of Science, National Book Foundation Award, by Government of Pakistan, HEC Life-Time Academic Achievements Award by the Government of Pakistan and Dr. ZA Hashmi Gold Medal by Pakistan Science Foundation. He is a Fellow, Pakistan Academy of Science and has been elected as the Fellow of TWAS (The World Academy of Science) in 2013.

Selected recent publications:


  1. Bero L, Cranswick N, Fernandopulle R, Gilani AH, et al. (2007).The selection and use of essential medicines: 15th model list of essential medicines. World Health Organization Technical Report Series. (946): back cover, v-162.
  2. Al-Fannah JMA, Coelho H, Cranswick N, Gilani AH, et al. (2008). The selection and use of essential medicines: model list of essential medicines for children. World Health Organization Technical Report Series. (950): back cover, vii-174.

Review articles:

  1. Anwar F, Muhammad G, Hussain MA, Zengin G, Alkharfy KM, Ashraf M, Gilani AH. 2016. Capparis spinosa L.: A Plant with High Potential for Development of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals/Pharmaceuticals. International Journal of Pharmacology 12: 201-219; DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2016.201.219
  2. Khan AU, Gilani AH. 2015. Natural Products Useful in Respiratory Disorders: Focus on Side-Effect Neutralizing Combinations. Phytotherapy Research 29 (9), 1265-1285; DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5380
  3. Ahmed T. Gilani AUH , Abdollahi M, Daglia M, Nabavi SM. 2015. Berberine and neurodegeneration: a review of literature. Pharmacological Reports 67(5):970-9; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2015.03.002
  4. Muhammad G, Hussain MA, Anwar F, Ashraf M, Gilani AH. 2015. Alhagi: A Plant Genus Rich in Bioactives for Pharmaceuticals. Phytotherapy Research 19(1): 1-13; DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5222
  5. Ahmed T, Gilani AH. 2014. Therapeutic potential of Turmeric in Alzheimer’s disease: curcumin or curcuminoids? Phytotherapy Research 28 (4) 517-25; DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5030
  6. Hussain AI, Rathore HA, Abdur-Sattar MZ, Chatha SAS, Sarker SD, Gilani AH. 2014. Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad (Bitter apple fruit): A review of its phytochemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and nutritional potential. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155(1): 54-66; doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.011.
  7. Sahib NG, Anwar F, Gilani AH, Hamid AA, Saari N, Al-Kharfy KM. 2013. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): A potential source of high-value components for functional foods and nutraceuticals- A review. Phytotherapy Research 27(10):1439-56; DOI: 10.1002/ptr.4897.
  8. Ghanbari R, Anwar F, Alkharfy KM, Gilani AH, Saari N (2012). Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.) - A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2012, 13(3), 3291-3340; doi:10.3390/ijms13033291
  9. Ali A, Gilani AH (2007) Medicinal value of ginger with focus on its use in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. International Journal of Food Properties 10: 269-278.
  10. Anwar F, Latif S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH, 2007. Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytotherapy Research 21:17-25. (388 citations).
    http://theenergizedbody.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/06/ multiplemedicalpurposes1.pdf
  11. Carpenter DO, El-Qaderi S, Fayzieva D, Gilani AH, Hambartsumyan A, Herz K, Isobaev M, Kasymov O, Kudyakov R, Majitova Z, Mamadov E, Nemer L, Revich B, Stege P, Suk W, Upshur R, Yilmaz B, Zaineh K (2006). Children’s Environmental Health in Central Asia and the Middle East. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 12: 362-368.
  12. Gilani AH, Atta-ur-Rahman (2005). Trends in Ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 100 (1-2): 43-49 (attracted over 350 citations and ranked 3rd amongst the top 25 articles of the journal, survey by Science Direct).

Research Papers:

  1. Jamshed H, Gilani AH, Sultan FT, Amin F, Arslan J, Ghani S, and Masroor M. Almond supplementation reduces serum uric acid in coronary artery disease patients: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 2016 15(1):77. DOI: 10.1186/s12937-016-0195-4
  2. Palla AH, Iqbal NA, Minhas K, Gilani AH . 2016. Flaxseed extract exhibits mucosal protective effect in acetic acid induced colitis in mice by modulating cytokines, antioxidant and antiinflammatory mechanisms. International Immunopharmacology 38:153–166; doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2016.04.043; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567576916301862
  3. Arshad U, Bashir S, Rehman NU, Janbaz KH, Yaqub T, Gilani AH . 2016. Dual inhibition of Ca+2 influx and Phosphodiesterase enzyme provides scientific base for the medicinal use of Chrozophora prostrata Dalz. in respiratory disorders. Phytotherapy Research 30(6):1010-5, doi: 10.1002/ptr.5610.
  4. Bukhari IA, Gilani AH , Meo SA, Saeed A 2016. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet activities of Buddleja crispa. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016; 16(1):79. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1021-4
  5. Arayne MS, Sultana N, Shehnaz H,, Mandukhail SUR, Gilani AH , Haider A. 2016. Antihistaminic and other Biological Activities of 2-methylpropanamide and Benzamide Derivatives of Carboxyterfenadine. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. doi:10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.01.004
  6. Khan AU, Ali S, Gilani AH. 2017. Antispasmodic, bronchodilator, vasorelaxant and cardiosuppressant effects of Buxus papillosa. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 17:54; DOI 10.1186/s12906-017-1558-x
  7. Amin F, Islam N, Anila N, Gilani AH. 2015. Clinical efficacy of the co-administration of turmeric and black seeds (Kalongi) in metabolic syndrome - A double blind randomized controlled trial- TAK-MetS Trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 10.1016/j.ctim.2015.01.008
  8. Palla AH, Khan NA, Bashir S, Rehman N, Iqbal J, Gilani AH. 2015. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Linum usitatissimum (Flaxseed) in infectious and non-infectious diarrhea. Journal of Ethnopharmacology160: 61-68: DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.11.030.
  9. Jamshed H, Gilani AH. 2014. Almonds inhibit dyslipidemia and vascular dysfunction in rats through multiple pathways. Journal of Nutrition 144(11):1768-74; doi:10.3945/jn.114.198721.
  10. Amin A, Mehmood MH, Siddiqui BS, Khatoon, Gilani AH. Co-administration of Black seeds and Turmeric shows enhanced efficacy in preventing metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed rats. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology published online; DOI: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000179
  11. Jamshed H, Arsalan J, Gilani AH. Cholesterol-cholate-butterfat diet offers multi-organ dysfunction in rats. Lipids in Health and Disease 2014, 13:194;http://www.lipidworld.com/content/13/1/194
  12. Bukhari IA, Alhumayyd MS, Mahesar AL, Gilani AH 2013. The analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine in mice. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 64 (6): 789-794
  13. Amin F, Gilani AH. Fiber-free white flour with fructose offers a better model of metabolic syndrome. Lipids in Health and Disease 2013, 12:44;doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-44
  14. Khan H, Saeed M, Gilani AH, Muhammad N, Haq IU, Ashraf N, Rehman NU, Haleemi A. Antipyretic and Anticonvulsant Activity of Polygonatum verticillatum: Comparison of Rhizomes and Aerial Parts.Phytotherapy Research 2013, 27(3):468-71.
  15. Khan M, Subhan F, Khan AU, Abbas M, Ali G, Rauf K, Gilani AH. 2013. Nature cures nature: Hypericum perforatum attenuates physical withdrawal signs in opium dependent rats. Pharmaceutical Biology DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2013.854811
  16. Gilani AH, Rehman NU, Mehmood H, AlKharfy KM. 2013; Species differences in the antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Lepidium sativum and insight into underlying mechanisms. Phytotherapy Research 27: 1086-1094;doi: 10.1002/ptr.4819.
  17. Aqeel Y, Iqbal J, Siddiqui R, Gilani AH, Khan NA. Anti-Acanthamoebic properties of resveratrol and demethoxycurcumin. Experimental Parasitology 2012; 132(4):519-23.
  18. Palla AH, Khan RA, Gilani AH, Marra F (2012) Over prescription of antibiotics for adult pharyngitis is prevalent in developing countries but can be reduced using McIsaac modification of Centor scores: a cross-sectional study BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2012; 24;12(1):70.
  19. Khan A, Khan SR, Gilani AH (2012) Studies on the in vitro and in vivo antiurolithic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica. Urological Research DOI 10.1007/s00240-012-0483-1
  20. Siddiqi HS, Mehmood MH, Rehman NU, Gilani AH (2012). Studies on the antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic activities of Viola odorata leaves extract. Lipids in Health and Disease 10;11(1):6.
  21. Zaidi SF, Muhammad JS, Shahryar S, Usmanghani K, Gilani AH, Jafri W, Sugiyama T (2012) Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of selected Pakistani medicinal plants in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141(1):403-10;
  22. Khan H, Saeed M, Gilani AU, Khan MA, Khan I, Ashraf N (2011). Antinociceptive Activity of Aerial Parts of Polygonatum verticillatum: Attenuation of Both Peripheral and Central Pain Mediators. Phytotherapy Research. 25(7):1024-30. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3369.
  23. Ahmed T, Gilani AH (2011). Comparative study on curcuminoids for their effect on inflammatory and apoptotic gene expression in rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Brain Research 1400:1-18.
  24. Mehmood H, Aziz N, Ghayyur MN, Gilani AH (2011). Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Psyllium husk (Ispaghula) in constipation and diarrhea. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 56:1460-1471.
  25. Bashir S, Gilani AH (2011) Antiurolithic effect of berberine is mediated through multiple pathways. European Journal of Pharmacology 651: 168-175. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.076
  26. Ahmed T, Gilani AH, Hosseinmardi N, Semnanian S, Enam SA, Fathollahi Y. (2011) Curcuminoids rescue LTP impaired by amyloid peptide in rat hippocampal slices. Synapse 65:572-582.
  27. Ahmed T, Enam SA, Gilani AH (2010) Curcuminoids enhance memory in amyloid infused model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience 169: 1296-1306
  28. Jafar, TH, Islam M, Hatcher J, Hashmi S, Bux R, Khan A, Poulter N, Badruddin S, Chaturvedi N, Jafary F, Hameed A, Khan A, Gilani A, Zaidi S, Syed N, Jessani S, Qadri Z, Cosgrove P (2010).Community based lifestyle intervention for blood pressure reduction in children and young adults in developing country: cluster randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal 340:c2641; doi:10.1136/bmj.c2641
  29. Khan H, Saeed M, Gilani AU,Khan MA, Dar A, Khan I. (2010). The antinociceptive activity of Polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes in pain models. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 127:521-527.
  30. Hussain AI, Anwar F, Nigam PS, Ashraf M, Gilani AH (2010). Seasonal variation in content, chemical composition and antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from four Mentha species. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90(11):1827-1836.
  31. Mandukhail SUR, Aziz N, Gilani AH (2010). Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit, leaves and root extracts. Lipids in Health and Disease 9(1):88; PMID: 20727145.
  32. Mahmood MH, Gilani AH (2010). Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of black pepper and piperine in gastrointestinal disorders. Journal of Medicinal Foods 13 (5): 1086-1096.
  33. Ahmed T, *Gilani AH (2009). Inhibitory effect of curcuminoids on acetylcholinesterase activity and attenuation of scopolamine-induced amnesia may explain medicinal use of turmeric in Alzheimer’s disease. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour 91: 554-559 (attracted over 100 citations so far and ranked amongst top 25 articles of the Journal, based on Science Direct).
  34. Qidwai W, Hamza HB, Qureshi R, Gilani AH (2009). Effectiveness, safety and tolerability of Nigella sativa (Kalonji) seed extract on lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure and body weight in adults: Results of a randomized double blind controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 15 (50): doi:10.1089/acm.2008.0367
  35. Aziz N, Mahmood MH, Mandukhal SR, Bashir S, Raoof S, *Gilani AH (2009). Antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidyslipidemic and endothelial modulating activities of a poly-herbal formulation (POL-10). Vascular Pharmacology 50: 57-64. (ranked amongst top 25 articles of the journal, survey by Science Direct).
  36. Shah AJ, *Gilani AH (2009). Blood pressure lowering and vascular modulator effects of Acorus calamus extract are mediated through multiple pathways. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 54: 38-46.
  37. *Gilani AH, Shah AJ, Zubair A, Khalid S, Kiani J, Ahmed A, Rasheed M, Ahmed VU (2009) Chemical composition and mechanisms underlying the spasmolytic and bronchodilatory properties of the essential oil of Nepeta cataria L. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 121: 405-411.
  38. Aziz N, Mahmood MH, Siddiqi HS, Mandukhal SR, Saqib F, Maan W, Gilani AH (2009). Antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic and endothelial modulating activities of Orchis mascula. Hypertension Research 32(11): 997-1003.
  39. Gilani AH, Khan A, Raoof M, Jabeen Q, Ghayur MN, Siddiqui BS, Vohra W (2008) Gastrointestinal, selective airways and urinary bladder relaxant effects of Hyoscymus niger are mediated through dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Ca++ influx. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 22: 87-99.
  40. Ghayur MN, *Gilani AH, Ahmed T, Khalid A, Nawaz SA,  Agbedahunsi JM,  Choudhary MI, Houghton PJ (2008) Muscarinic, Ca++ antagonist and specific butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of dried ginger extract might explain its use in dementia. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology60: 1375-1383.
  41. Taqvi SIH, Shah AJ, *Gilani AH (2008). Blood pressure lowering and vasomodulator effects of piperine. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 52(5): 452-458.
  42. Ghayur MN, *Gilani AH, Janssen LJ (2008). Ginger attenuates acetylcholine-induced contraction and Ca2+ signaling in murine airway smooth muscle cells. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 86(5): 264-271.
  43. Bukhari IA, Khan RA, Gilani AH, Shah AJ, Hussain J, Ahmad VU. 2007. The analgesic, anti-inflammatory and calcium antagonist potential of Tanacetum artemisioides. Archives of Pharmacal Research 30: 303-312.
  44. Nisar M, Adzu B, Inamullah K, Bashir A, Ihsan A, Gilani AH (2007) Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of the Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew. Leaves Phytotherapy Research 21: 693-695.
  45. Rohra DK, Gilani AH, Memon IK, Perven G, Khan MT, Zafar H, Ahuja RK (2006) Critical evaluation of the claims made by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotional material in Pakistan. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 9: 50-59.
  46. Khan A, Gilani AH (2006). Selective bronchodilatory effect of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) and its flavonoid, chrysoeriol. European Journal of Nutrition 45: 463-469
  47. Ghayur, MN, Gilani AH (2006). Species differences in the prokinetic effects of ginger. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 57: 65-73.
  48. Choudhary MI, Nawaz SA, Zaheer-ul-Haq, Azim MK, Ghayur MN, Lodhi MA, Jalil S, Khalid A, Ahmed A, Rode , Atta-ur-Rahman, Gilani AH, Ahmad VU (2005). Juliflorine: a potent natural peripheral anionic-site- binding inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase with calcium-channel blocking potential, a leading candidate for Alzheimer’s disease therapy. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 332: 1171-1179.
  49. Ghayur, MN, Gilani, AH (2005) Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 45, 74-80.
  50. Ghayur MN and Gilani AH (2005) Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Ginger in gastrointestinal disorders. Digestive Diseases and Sciences50: 1889-1897.
  51. Butt ZA, Gilani, AH, Nanan, D, Sheikh AL, White, F (2005). Quality of Pharmacies in Pakistan: A Cross-sectional Survey. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 17:307-313
  52. Rohra DK, Sharif H, Zuberi H, Ghayur MN, Gilani AH (2005) Acidosis-induced relaxation of human mammary artery is due to activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. European Journal of Pharmacology 514: 175-181
  53. Ghayur MN, Gilani AH, Afridi MB, Houghton PJ (2005). Cardiovascular effects of ginger aqueous extract and its phenolic constituents are mediated through multiple pathways. Vascular Pharmacology 43(4): 234-241.
  54. Gilani AH, Shah AJ, Ghayur MN, Majeed K (2005). Pharmacological basis for the use of turmeric in gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. Life Sciences 76: 3089-3105. (ranked amongst top 25 articles of the journal, survey by Science Direct).

Book Chapters:

  1. Anwar, F., Abbas, A., Alkharfy, K.M., Gilani, A.-u., 2016. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) Oils. In: Preedy, V.R. (Ed.), Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety. Academic Press, pp. 295–301.ISBN: 9780124166417;
  2. Eskinder Eshetu Ali, Anwarul-Hassan Gilani, Teferi Gedif 2015. Pharmaceutical Pricing in Ethiopia. Pharmaceutical Prices in the 21st Century, Springer; ISBN: 978-3-319-12168-0 (Print) 978-3-319-12169-7 (Online); DOI10.1007/978-3-319-12169-7_5;
  3. Babar ZUD, Jamshed S, Malik A, Gilani AH (2013). The pharmaceutical industry, intellectual property rights and access to medicines in Pakistan. In: Lofgren, H & Williams, O (eds) The New Political Economy of Drugs: Production, Innovation and TRIPS in the Global South, Palgrave MacMillan, Hamshire, pp. 167-184.
  4. Anwar A, Ahmad N, Alkharfy KM, Gilani AH (2013). Mugwort (Artemisia anua L.) Essential Oil. In: Essential Oils in Food Production, Preservation, Flavour and Safety, Victor Preedy (editor), Kings College, London (in press).
  5. Bashir S, Khan NA, Gilani AH. Physiology of Citrate Handling by the Kidney. In Urolithiasis:  Basic science and clinical practice, J Talati, HG Tiselius, D Albala, Z Ye (eds); DOI 10.1007/978-1-4471-4387-1_21, © Springer-Verlag London 2013.
  6. Gilani AH, Khan AU (2010) Medicinal value of novel combination of cholinergic and calcium antagonist constituents in olive. Chapter 89, In: Olives and Olive Oil in Health and Disease Prevention. Academic Press-Elsevier, Victor R. Preedy and Ronald Ross Watson (editors), pp. 835-843,
  7. Gilani AH, Khan, A (2009) Herbs used to treat respiratory disorders other than infections. Chapter 15, In: P K Mukherjee and P Houghton (ed) Evaluation of Herbal Medicinal Products [Perspectives of Quality, Safety and Efficacy] Pharmaceutical Press, London, pp. 203-214.
  8. Malik, F, Hussain, S., Dil, A.S., Hannan A and Gilani AH (2005). Islamic Republic of Pakistan., Chapter 22, In: WHO Global Atlas of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Map volume), Editors: C.K. Ong, G. Bodeker, C. Grundy, G. Burford, K. Shein, World Health Organization, Geneva, pp. 165-169.


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